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Nonmetals

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The nonmetals are located on the upper right side of the periodic table.

Hydrogen

Main article: Hydrogen


Hydrogen is the first element listed in the periodic table. Even though hydrogen is placed above group 1, it does not belong to the Alkali metal family.It is the most abundant element in the universe and is composed of a single proton and a single electron. Many scientists estimated that 90 percent of the universe is made up hydrogen.<ref> Winter, M.“Hydrogen: the essentials”. WebElements: the periodic table on the web . 1993-2009. February 5, 2009, from http://www.webelements.com/hydrogen/</ref>


Carbon

Main article: Carbon


Carbon is the sixth element on the periodic table, with an atomic number of six and an atomic mass of 12.0107 amu. In the periodic table of elements, carbon is found in Group 14 and Period 2. <ref>Bentor, Lenon(2006)."Periodic Table".Retrieved January 20, 2009, from http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/c.html</ref> Carbon is the sixth most abundant element in the universe and plays a dominant role in the chemistry as the basis of all life on Earth. <ref>Gagdon,Steve(2008)."Jefferson".Retrieved January 20, 2009, from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele006.html</ref> As a non-metal, carbon is unique in its chemical properties because it forms better substances than the total addition of all the other elements combined with each other.

Nitrogen

Main article: Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a nonmetal that was discovered by a person named Daniel Rutherford in the year 1772, and was first synthesized by Fritz Haber in 1905. Nitrogen is a chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number of 7, which means it has 7 protons & electrons. Nitrogen also has the atomic weight of 14.0067 and tends to be found in a gas state of matter. You can find Nitrogen in Group 15 (P-Block) and in Period 2.

Oxygen

Main article: Oxygen


Oxygen is the 8th element of the periodic table oxygen is located in group 6A, which is a nonmetal group.<ref>Shell, B. (2000). Physics question #127. Retrieved January 30, 2009, from http://www.science.ca/askascientist/viewquestion.php?qID=127</ref> The atomic number of oxygen is 8, so that means it has 8 protons. <ref>http://www.education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele008.html</ref>

Phosphorus

Main article: Phosphorus


Phosphorus is element 15 on the periodic table. It has two allotropes, red and white phosphorus. Phosphorus symbol is (P). Phosphorous is an element that is very essential to a majority forms of lifes. This element is the sixth abundant element in living organisms.(http://www.chemicool.com/). (P) is a nonmetal or a metalloid The name phosphorus come from the Greek word ‘phosphorus’ meaning bringer of light. (http://www.chemicool.com/) . (P) has an atomic number of fifteen. It does exist in nature in two forms white and red (P). Phosphorus is deadly if a dose of 50 mg is injected into the body. The melting point of phosphorus (white) is 44.1°C, boiling point (white) is 280°C (http://chemistry.about.com/) . This element has a white and waxy luster and color to it. It has no color to it at all. Phosphorus is a base thus it does not react with metals, feels a bit slippery, and has a bitter taste. There is not one specific type of phosphorus, but three types this includes black, white, and red phosphorous. White phosphorus is made is produced industrially. It is used as a filler as well as used in the military this element is very toxic and flammable substance. Red phosphorus is not at times red but orange and or purple. There are multiple uses for red phosphorus this includes the making of the strike plate of matchboxes, promoting plant growth in fertilizers, pesticides, drugs, fireworks, bombs, flares and in my opinion about anything that is commonly used in starting a fire. Black phosphorus is made not found. It is extracted from high pressure. This particular phosphorus does conduct electricity and has a almost graphite appearance to it. In nature (P) is not in a pure form, but rather as phosphates. Phosphates include minerals those that have have an appearance like rocks and in organic molecules.


Sulfur

Main article: Sulfur

Sulfur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.Sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid when at room temperature.Sulfur is chemically characterized as a multivalent non-metallic substance.It is classified as an essential element for life and occurs in two different amino acids,cysteine and methionine.

Selenium

Main article: Selenium


Selenium Selenium is an element on the periodic table with the atomic number of 34. Selenium is used on things like photoelectric cells and TV cameras. Selenium can be obtain from refining lead, copper, and or nickel. This element was named after the greek word for moon. Selenium has a hexagonal crystal structure.


Properties

Non-metals show characteristic properties:

  • poor heat and electrical conductivity
  • form acidic oxides
  • dull low luster and brittle
  • low densities
  • low melting points
  • high electronegativity.



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