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The Chemistry Book is a wiki written for high school students located in California or students using the textbook entitled World of Chemistry by Zumdahl, Zumdahl, and DeCoste. All materials were developed to correlate with the Chemistry Content Standards for California.

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George Johnstone Stoney was an Irish physicist. He coined the term "electron" in 1891. <ref>Irish Universities Promoting Science</ref>

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Henry MoseleyJean Baptiste PerrinEvangelista Torricelli
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Absolute zero is the zero point temperature in Kelvin and Rankine temperature scales in which there is no motion. As heat is added to the system then motion increases, and may be measured by a thermometer.
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MolalityLearning chemistryNuclear decay
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Main article: Lithium

The element Li also known as Lithium has an atomic mass of 3. It is the third element on the periodic table. It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable. For this reason, it is typically stored in mineral oil. Lithium is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7 with the latter being far more abundant.


It was discovered 1817 in mineral petalite by Johann August Arfvedson in Stockholm,  Sweden.  He discovered Li while working in his friend’s private laboratory.  It is used for metal, concentrate, and chemical compounds. Lithium is typically used for bipolar disorders and to treat the manic episodes of manic depression.It is sometimes used when other treatments are not effective. It also helps to prevent or lessen the intensity of manic episodes.

Lithium’s abundance on Earth is 17. The abundance in the universe is 20. It’s found at room temperature;solid. Lithium is considered to be a metal. Lithium has a very low density of 0.534 g/cm3, comparable to pine wood. It is the least dense of all the elements that are solids at room temperature. The melting point is 180.54 degrees Celsius and the boiling point is 1347.0 degrees Celsius. It is considered to be a conductor. Three radioactive isotopes of lithium have been produced. A radioactive isotope breaks apart and gives off some form of radiation.

Fun facts

Lithium’s name is derived from the Greek word ‘lithos’ meaning, ‘stone.’ It affects the flow of sodium through nerve and muscle cells in the body. Sodium affects excitation or mania. It required more acid to neutralize it than sodium and its carbonate was only sparingly soluble in water – unlike sodium carbonate. Arfvedson tried to produce a pure sample of the new metal by electrolysis, but he was unsuccessful; the battery he used was not powerful enough. Lithium is the lightest of all metals. At about half the density of water, it floats on water, but it also reacts to it, forming hydrogen gas and lithium hydroxide. It is also the only alkali metal that reacts with nitrogen.
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Primordial elementsTrace radioisotopeSynthetic elements
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