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Name Tin
Atomic Number 50
Atomic Weight 118.71
Symbol Sn
Melting Point ( °C ) 231.93 °C
Boiling Point ( °C ) 2602 °C
Density (g/cm3) 7.31 g/cm3
Earth crust (%) 0.00022%
Discovery (Year) 3000 BC
Group 14
Electron configuration [Kr]4d105s25p2
Ionization energy (eV) 708.6
Tinis the main group metal in group 14 of the Periodic Table. Tin is a chemical element with an atomic number of 50. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table. In modern times tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin soft solder which are typically 60% or more tin. Tin is part of the Post- Transition metals. After 600 BC pure metallic tin was produced. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal is commonly used for food packaging as tin cans, which are made mostly of steel.  


Tin was discovered in the ancient times, 3000 BC. Tin extraction and use can be dated to the beginnings of the Bronze Age around 3000 BC, when it was observed that copper objects formed of poly-metallic ores with different metal contents had different physical properties. The earliest bronze objects had a tin or arsenic content of less than 2% and are therefore believed to be the result of unintentional alloying due to trace metal content in the copper ore. This was an important innovation that allowed for the much more complex shapes cast in closed molds of the Bronze Age. Arsenic bronze objects appear first in the Near East where arsenic is commonly found in association with copper ore, but the health risks were quickly realized and the quest for sources of the much less hazardous tin ores began early in the Bronze Age.


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1. "SnH3". NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institure of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 23 January 2013.

2. "HSn". NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 23 January 2013.

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