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Max Planck


Max Karl Ernest Planck also known as the father of quantum theory.<ref>http://www.steelbridgefabricators.com/2008/12/father-of-quantum-theory.html</ref> Max Plank was a German physicist and Nobel laureate, who was the originator of the quantum theory.<ref>http://www.electro-optical.com/bb_rad/mplanck.htm%7CRetrieved: February 4,2009</ref>

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, b. Apr. 23, 1858, d. Oct. 3, 1947, developed the concept of the quantum, or fundamental increment of energy, basic to quantum mechanics, and a cornerstone of modern physics. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Munich in 1879, Planck taught at the University of Kiel (1885-89) and the University of Berlin (1889-1926). His appointment at the latter institution included the directorship of the Institute of Theoretical Physics that was newly founded for him.Planck began studying black body radiation in 1897 and discovered that at very short wavelengths it did not obey the distribution laws given by Wilhelm Wien. In trying to understand this spectrum using Wien’s laws, Planek ran smack into an "ultraviolet catastrophe". A black body would give off an infinite amount of energy at the ultraviolet end of the spectrum. That was impossible.After working on this problem unsuccessfully for several years. He took a fateful step in late 1900 that he eventually called "an act of desperation." Planck cautiously proposed that, contrary to classical wave theory, matter emits and absorbs radiation in tiny discrete packets or bundles called "quanta" — not continuously, as everyone had assumed. Initially Planck was not comfortable with this explanation and fully expected the idea to be disproved by further research. Instead quantum theory, which gained Planck the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918, was used by Albert Einstein to explain (1905) the photoelectric effect and by Niels Bohr to propose (1913) a model of the atom with quantified electronic states; the theory was later developed into quantum mechanics. Understanding the implications of quantum mechanics lead directly to the development of atomic energy and the semiconductor industry.Planck mastered every aspect of physics from thermodynamics and electrodynamics to relativity and also wrote extensively on the philosophy of science.<ref>http://www.mpg.de/english/aboutTheSociety/researchFuture/worldClassScience/index.html</ref>For more than half a century, it has been an icon of outstanding basic research in the life sciences, the natural sciences and the humanities.<ref>http://thinkexist.com/quotes/max_planck/</ref> "Science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of nature. And that is because, in the last analysis, we ourselves are a part of the mystery that we are trying to solve.”-Max Planck<ref>World Almanac Education Group. (2006). PLANCK, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig. Retrieved January 25,2009, from http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=219388</ref>

Early Life

Caption: Max Plank
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Max Karl Ernest Planck was born on April 23, 1858<ref>http://www.nobleprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laurates/1918/planck-bio.html |january 28,2009</ref> When he was nine years old, he entered Munich's renowned Maximillian Gymnasium, where his interest in physics and mathematics developed <ref>http://www.chem.csustan.edu/chem3070/Raul1.htm |january 28,2009</ref>. When he graduated from high school at the age of 17 he chose to study physics over philology and music because he was more interested in physics.

Education

Planck entered the University of Munich in the fall of 1874 then he transferred to the University of Berlin in 1877. Soon after that he received his doctoral degree in July 1879, he was just 21. At 1889 he was a professor at Berlin University, then the Prussian Academy of Sciences made him a memeber and became secretary in 1912<ref>http://www.light-science.com/maxplanck.html |january 25,2009</ref> .Later on he kept studying physics, Planck explained his reason for choosing physics as, "The outside world in something independent from man,something absolute, and the quest for the laws which apply to this absolute appeared to me as the most sublime scientific pursuit in life."(O'Connor and Robertson)

Family Life

In March 1887 Max Planck got married to Merck in 1909. They moved together in a sublet apartment in Kiel. They had 4 kids. The oldest, his son Karl which was born in 1888. The he had twin girls, Emma and Grete which was born in 1889. The in 1893 his son Erwin was born. After a while they moved to Villa in Berlin-Grunewald Wangenhelmstrabe 21. <ref>http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/max_planck_-_family/id/1753438 |january 28,2009</ref>

In March 1911 Planck got married again to Marga Von Hoesslin, after his first wife Merck, which died of tuberculosis. In December they had a son, Herrmann. A bad time had hit for Max's family. Erwin was taken to prison the French in 1914. Karl was killed in the war in Verdun in 1916. While Grete was giving birth to her first child in 1917 she died, and two years later her twin Emma died. So all Planck had left was his son Herrmann and his wife Marga. <ref>http://www.light-science.com |january 28,2009</ref>

Laboratory

German physicist Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck known as the first of many scientific breakthroughs. According to <ref>http://www.libray.thinkquest.org/15567/bio/planck.html |january 28,2009</ref> Planck developed the concept of the quantum, or fundamental increment of energy basic to Quantum Mechanics, and a cornerstone of modern physics. After Planck recieved his Ph.D from University of Munich in 1879. Planck taught at the university of Kiel (1885-89) and after the University of Berlin (1889-1939). Then later foundede the Instiute of Theroretical Physics. Plank began studying Blackbody Radiation in 1897 and discoveed that at long wavelengths that didnt obey the original distributation laws given by Wilhelm Wien. <ref> http://www.spaceandmotion.com/quantum-theory |january 28,2009</ref> is based on Planck discovering that the wave structure of matter (WSM) and standing wave interaction which occur at discrete Frequencies explains Quantum energy states of matter and right "quanta" [E=hf] in the 20th century. CITATION REQUIRED "Classical" wave theory, treating the electromagnetic waves in the same way that you would treat vibrations of a violin string, told 19th-century physicists that there should always be a huge amount of radiation emitted at very short wavelengths--that is, in the ultraviolet--region, but there just isn't.<ref>Title: Quantum Rules, OK!, Source: New Scientist,Author: John Gribbin,Publication Date: Sept. 16, 1989, Retrieved:Feb.4,2009</ref> According to classical theory the energy emitted in any waveband is proportional to the frequency, and inversely proportional to the wavelength. So, as the wavelength goes to zero, the energy tends to infinity. This puzzle became known as the "Ultraviolet catastrophe".The catastrophe was resolved by Planck's suggestion that radiation--such as light--could be emitted only in packets greater than a certain size. Instead of the available energy being spread out continuously (in effect, made up of an infinite number of tiny pieces), as classical theory required, Planck's new theory described the statistics of electromagnetic energy divided up into a finite number of pieces. That statistical description exactly matched the observed black body curve. It said that the energy E of each piece of radiation is related to its frequency f by the equation E = hf where h is a constant now known as Planck's constant.It is easy to see how this resolves the ultraviolet catastrophe. For very high frequencies, the energy that is needed to emit one quantum of radiation is large, because f is large, and only a few emitters will possess that much energy. At very low frequencies, there are many electrons with enough energy to emit the appropriate low-energy quanta, but these each carry so little energy that even added together they don't amount to much. Only in the middle of the black body curve, where there are a moderate number of electrons each with enough energy to emit moderately large quanta, is there a peak of radiation.


Max Planck's Laboratory

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Accomplishments

Planck recieved many honors for his work,in 1930 he was elected president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science. He was elected for Foreign Membership of the Royal Society in 1926, and awared the societyt's Copley Medal in 1928 <ref>Retrieved January 25, 2009, from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1918/planck-bio.html</ref>

Max Planck's Models

Max Planck was into music until his math teacher turned his attention to science. He focused on thermodynamics (the study of heat and energy) and radiation of hot metals. In 1901 he came up with a theory (experimental evidence)<ref>http://www.phs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/enteies/bppcan.html |january 28,2009</ref> meaning, energy did not flow steady, but was delivered in a discrete packets that Max Planck called quanta. Therefore the quanta, it explains a hot iron poker glow that shows red and white. A lot of people thought he was trying to redesign physics, but he was just describing a particular phenomenon, that he was studying that later became quanta. Awkward sentence With his design he was president of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute but after the war it became Max Planck Institute. CITATION REQUIRED

Planck's Constant

Max Planck Light quanta was the one that came to solve the of black-body problem. The black-body problem was difficult and no other scientists wanted to end up with the wrong results until Max Planck decide he was. Max Planck had to go looking for a mathematical formula that would find the phenomenon. The only problem with this is that he had to find a classical electromagnetism, but Max Planck did it. With his knowledge of physics he came up with the equation E=hv. Which "E" is heat and energy and "hv" is a new constant which Max Planck called a double Planck constant. With this equation it came to solve the black-body problem. <ref>http://quantumphysics.suite101.com/article.cfm/max_planck_and_light_quanta |january 25,2009</ref>

Later Life & Death

Planck suffered a personal tragedy when one of his sons where executed for his part. CITATION REQUIRED This happened because he was unsuccessful in an attempt to assasinate Hitler in 1944. On October 4, 1947 in the age of 89, Max Planck died in Gottingen.

Videos

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References

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