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Major groups


First year chemistry learners should know several major groups in the periodic table.

Alkali metals

main article: Alkali metals

Alkali metals are in the first group or family of elements listed on the periodic table.The akali metals are located on the far left on the periodic table. They are the first six (except hydrogen) elements in the first row. The metals in general have physical properties such as heat, electricity, malleability, ductility, and shiny. The alkali metals are: Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, and Francium.


Alkaline Earth metals

main article: Alkaline Earth metals

Alkaline Earth metals are in the second group of the periodic table. The group includes beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium.


Halogens

main article: Halogens

The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17.


Noble Gases

main article: Noble Gases


Noble gases reside on the far right column of a traditional periodic table. In the periodic table there are only six noble gases which are located in the group 18 or 8a. <Ref> Bentor, Y. (2006) Periodic Table: Noble Gases. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/noblegases.html</ref> The noble gases group is made up of the elements helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. During the 1960's the Noble gases were thought to be inert, which means to be non-reactive. <Ref> Bentor, Y. (2006) Periodic Table: Noble Gases. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/noblegases.html</ref> The oxidation number for these gases is 0, which keeps them from making compounds. <Ref> Bentor, Y. (2006) Periodic Table: Noble Gases. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/noblegases.html</ref> The outer shell of the noble gases is full which keeps the gases stable and they tend to neither gain nor lose electrons. Their ionization energies are high and their electronegative levels are not really significant. <Ref> Helmenstein, A. Noble Gases. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementgroups/a/noblegases.htm</ref> The gases have low boiling points and they all are gases at room temperature. <Ref> Helmenstein, A. Noble Gases. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementgroups/a/noblegases.htm</ref>


References

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