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Joseph Black


Joseph Black
Joseph Black
Joseph Black
Born April 16, 1728
Bordeaux, France
Died December 6, 1799
Edinburgh, Scotland
Nationality Scotland
Fields chemistry
Institutions University of Glasgow & University of Edinburgh
Alma mater University of Glasgow
Known for carbon dioxide; latent heat

Joseph Black (1728-1799) was a Scottish chemist born April 16, 1728 in Bordeaux, France; he was one of 15 children. He was the son of a Scottish merchant settled in the city.<ref>www.chem.gla.ac.uk/~alanc/dept/black.htm</ref> Joseph Black was known for his discovery for example; he discovered latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.

Education

He attended school at the University of Glasgow. There, he began teaching Anatomy and Chemistry, where he replaced William Cullen. Black spent most of his professional life as professor of chemistry in Edinburgh from 1766 - 1799 <ref>http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Black.html</ref> He went on to become one of the first scientist to distinguish individual gases from air. Joseph Black was physicist, and a mentor for James Watt. James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer; he made major improvements to the steam engine.


Discoveries

Joseph Black discovered carbon dioxide, only then known from respiration and fermentation, can be produced can be produced by heating calcium carbonate. Joseph Black also discovered latent heat; he studied it but failed to understand the differences in specific heat between materials. Black spent five entire years in the arts class and then went on to studying medicine. From 1757-1766 he was a Professor of medicine, at the University of Glasgow. Joseph Black's education began at the University of Glasgow, when he was eighteen years old. Joseph Black moved to Edinburgh in 1752 to get better on his medical studies, but returned to Glasgow in 1756 as Professor of Anatomy and Botany, and Lecturer in Chemistry, when William Cullen was appointed Professor of Medicine in Edinburgh. He started making experiments on chemistry when he was a teacher at University of Glasgow.Black's theory of latent heat was one of his more-important scientific contributions, and one on which his scientific fame chiefly rests. He also showed that different substances have different specific heats. This all proved important not only in the development of abstract science but in the development of the steam engine.[5]<ref>http://www.answers.com/topic/joseph-black<ref>


Research

Joseph Black was known by many people at his time to be really smart and every time that he would teach or do lectures people would be attracted to him and he was able to convince the University authorities to equip new and better laboratory equipment. That is when Joseph Black started to do research on things while he was there; he studied what we now know as carbon dioxide or in other words CO2.Joseph Black did experiments while he was teacher at the University of Glasgow. He performed them on the substance Quicklime; Quicklime is a white crystalline oxide that is used in the production of calcium hydroxide or in other words calcium oxide. He also studied Magnesia Alba which is a light earthy white stuff that has magnesium oxide. It is obtained when you heat magnesium Hydrate or magnesium carbonate, or gust burning magnesium; it's used sometimes in medicine. Joseph Black also studied other alkaline substances; all his experiments were published two years later. “fixed air” (carbon dioxide), the concept of latent heat, and the discovery of the bicarbonates (such as bicarbonate of soda<ref>http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67460/Joseph-Black</ref>

Earlier in Joseph Black's experiments, chemists believed that when mild alkalies were heated, they reacted by the combination of an atom called "phlogiston". Thanks to Joseph's studies and most importantly his experiments he was able to help disprove the existence of phlogiston. Considering Black was a professor for a large variety of students including James Watt, helping them make their own discoveries. For example, James Watt used his thermodynamic experiment(that Black taught him) to develop steam-powered engines. Black also developed the very first logical balance in which he used a beam balance on a fulcrum; it had to pans on both sides. The balance was more precise than any other scale that was being used at the time. It became very common in all chemistry laboratories since then.

Joseph Black's discoveries didn't stop there. He discovered that when ice melts, it absorbs only a certain amount of heat without the ice changing temperature. Black realized that heat must be transferred to some other form of energy in the ice. Joseph Black dedicated his life to his work, his colleagues, and friends. Sadly, he never got married and died December 6,1799 at the age of 71 in Edinburgh, Scotland.


Footnotes

http://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography/?id=WH0043&type=P

Black's Chemistry lectures attracted large audiences and he was able to persuade the University authorities to equip a new, improved laboratory.

http://www.answers.com/topic/joseph-black

He discovered latent heat and also observed, but failed to understand, differences in specific heat between materials.


Further Reading

http://www.chem.gla.ac.uk/~alanc/dept/black.htm Joseph Black was a popular and effective teacher, and many examples of notes from his lectures still survive. Most of his Glasgow students followed him to Edinburgh when he moved there in 1766. He was noted for his lecture-demonstrations, many of them based on his latest and ongoing researches on magnesia alba and heat effects.

http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Black.html In Black's time, chemistry was regarded as a subordinate of medicine — its sole purpose was to provide remedies for treatment of disease. Black was a very popular lecturer — attracting audiences of several hundred students, often performing lecture experiments.


http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67460/Joseph-Black British chemist and physicist best known for the rediscovery of “fixed air” (carbon dioxide), the concept of latent heat, and the discovery of the bicarbonates (such as bicarbonate of soda).

http://www.general-anaesthesia.com/images/joseph-black.html Carbon dioxide was first isolated by Scottish chemist Joseph Black in 1757. Black was Professor of Chemistry at Glasgow University and a Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh University. As well as isolating carbon dioxide, Black propounded the theories of latent and specific heat. This was later applied by James Watt to the steam engine with momentous consequences.

http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Joseph_Black As a scientific investigator, Black was conspicuous for the carefulness of his work and his caution in drawing conclusions. Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science - his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" - he had an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system.

http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/Black.html Three ounces of magnesia were distilled in a glass retort and receiver, the fire being gradually increased until the magnesia was obscurely red hot

http://www.123exp-biographies.com/t/00034204598/ British chemist who identified carbon dioxide and who formulated the concepts of specific heat and latent heat (1728-1799).

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Black.html Black discovered latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization. In addition, he found that the same amount of heat produced different temperature changes in different bodies. The change in temperature for a given amount of heat is now known as specific heat.

http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/blackheat.html

http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Joseph-Black

References

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