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Germanium



Name Germanium
Atomic Number 32
Atomic Weight 72.59g.mol -1
Symbol Ge
Melting Point ( °C ) 937 °C
Boiling Point ( °C ) 2830 °C
Density (g/cm3) 5.3 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Earth crust (%) 0.00014%
Discovery (Year) 1869
Group metalloid
Electron configuration Ar 3d10 4s2 4p2
Ionization energy (eV) 7,8994

Description The element’s name is Germanium and its chemical symbol is Ge. Its atomic number is 32, its atomic mass is 72.64. Its melting point is 1211.40 K (938.25°C or 1720.85°F) and its boiling point is 3106 K (2833°C or 5131°F). It has a density of 5.323 grams per cubic centimeter, and it’s solid at room temperature. It’s a semimetal, which means it’s a semiconductor, and it’s a hard, lustrous, gray-white, brittle metalloid. It has a diamond-like crystalline structure and it is similar in chemical and physical properties to silicon Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid. On the periodic table, it is located in group number 14 and period number 4.

Discovery Germanium was one of the elements whose existence was predicted in 1869 by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev, after he noticed a gap between silicon and tin in his periodic table. Mendeleev provisionally called the predicted element eka-silicon. Germanium was discovered by Clemens A. Winkler in 1886, in Germany, in a mineral sample from a silver mine. Analysis indicated the sample – a rather rare mineral called argyrodite – contained 73 – 75% silver, 17 – 18%sulfur, 0.2% mercury, and 6 – 7% a new element, which Winkler named germanium. Mendeleev had predicted the new element’s density would be 5.5 g/cm3 and its atomic weight would be 70. His predictions proved to be rather good. Winkler’s name for the element comes from the Latin ‘Germania’ meaning Germany.

Uses The largest use of germanium is in the semiconductor industry. When doped with small amounts of arsenic, gallium, indium,antimony or phosphorus, germanium is used to make transistors for use in electronic devices. Germanium is also used to create alloys and as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps. Both germanium and germanium dioxide (GeO) are transparent to infrared radiation and are used in infrared optical instruments and infrared detectors. Some germanium compounds seem to be effective in killing some types of bacteria and are currently being studied for use in chemotherapy.

Germanium Abundance The abundance of germanium in the earth’s crust is 1.5 parts per million by weight, 0.42 parts per million by moles. Its abundance in the solar system is 200 parts per billion by weight, 3 parts per billion by moles. Its Cost if it’s pure is $360 per100g, and if it’s bulk is $120 per 100g. The main ore of germanium is germanite, which is about 7% germanium. Commercially, germanium is obtained as a byproduct of metal refining and from some coal ashes. Germanium has 24 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 58 to 85. Naturally occurring germanium is a mixture of five isotopes and they are found in the percentages shown: 70Ge (21.2%), 72Ge (27.7%),73Ge (7.7%), 74Ge (35.9%) and 76Ge (7.4%). The most abundant is 74Ge at 35.9%.

References www.lenntech.com / www.webelements.com / en.wikipedia.org





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