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# CH3 Framework

**The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants.**

**3. a. Students know how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations.**

Reactions are described by balanced equations because all the atoms of the reactants must be accounted for in the reaction products. An equation with all correct chemical formulas can be balanced by a number of methods, the simplest being by inspection. Given an unbalanced equation, students can do an inventory to determine how many of each atom are on each side of the equation. If the result is not equal for all atoms, coefficients (not subscripts) are changed until balance is achieved. Sometimes, reactions refer to substances with written names rather than to chemical symbols. Students should learn the rules of chemical nomenclature. This knowledge can be acquired in stages as new categories of functional groups are introduced.

**3. b. Students know the quantity one mole is set by defining one mole of carbon-12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12 grams.**

The mole concept is often difficult for students to understand at first, but they can be taught that the concept is convenient in chemistry just as a dozen is a convenient concept, or measurement unit, in the grocery store. The mole is a number. Specifically, a mole is defined as the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12. When atomic masses were assigned to elements, the mass of 12 grams of carbon-12 was selected as a standard reference to which the masses of all other elements are compared. The number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 is defined as one mole, or conversely, if one mole of 12C atoms were weighed, it would weigh exactly 12 grams. (Note that carbon, as found in nature, is a mixture of isotopes, including atoms of carbon-12, carbon-13, and trace amounts of carbon-14.) The definition of the mole refers to pure carbon-12.

The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average of the mass of one mole of its atoms based on the abundance of all its naturally occurring isotopes. The atomic mass of carbon is 12.011 grams. If naturally occurring carbon is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, the mass of one mole of naturally occurring oxygen can be determined from the combining mass ratios of the two elements. For example, the weight, or atomic mass, of one mole of oxygen containing mostly oxygen-16 and a small amount of oxygen-18 is 15.999 grams.

**3. c. Students know one mole equals 6.02 x 10 ^{23} particles (atoms or molecules).**

A mole is a very large number. Standard 3.b describes the mole as the number of atoms in 12 grams of

^{12}C. The number of atoms in a mole has been found experimentally to be about 6.02 x 10

^{23}. This number, called Avogadro's number, is known to a high degree of accuracy.

**3. d. Students know how to determine the molar mass of a molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses and how to convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.**

The molar mass of a compound, which is also called either the molecular mass or molecular weight, is the sum of the atomic masses of the constituent atoms of each element in the molecule. Molar mass is expressed in units of grams per mole. The periodic table is a useful reference for finding the atomic masses of each element. For example, one mole of carbon dioxide molecules contains one mole of carbon atoms weighing 12.011 grams and two moles of oxygen atoms weighing 2 x 15.999 grams for a total molecular mass of 44.009 grams per mole of carbon dioxide molecules.

The mass of a sample of a compound can be converted to moles by dividing its mass by the molar mass of the compound. This process is similar to the unit con-version discussed in the introduction to Standard Set 3. The number of particles in the sample is determined by multiplying the number of moles by Avogadro's number. The volume of an ideal or a nearly ideal gas at a fixed temperature and pressure is proportional to the number of moles. Students should be able to calculate the number of moles of a gas from its volume by using the relationship that at standard temperature and pressure (0^{0}C and 1 atmosphere), one mole of gas occupies a volume of 22.4 liters.

**3. e. Students know how to calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.**

Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. When the chemical reaction is written as a balanced expression, it is possible to calculate the mass of any one of the products or of any one of the reactants if the mass of just one reactant or product is known.

Students can be taught how to use balanced chemical equations to predict the mass of any product or reactant. Students should emphasize that the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation are mole quantities, not masses.

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