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CH1 Vocabulary


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  • Absorption spectra-light spectrum that is missing certain frequencies due to traveling through a cool gas
  • Actinide-elements 89-103
  • Alkali metals- a Group 1 metals
  • Alkaline earth metals-a Group 2 metal
  • Angular momentum-the tedency of an object to spin
  • Atom-the fundamental unit of which elements are composed.
  • Atomic mass-the weight average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring element.
  • Atomic number-the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; each element has a unique atomic number
  • Atomic theory-theory stating the smallest unit of matter that is undivisble is an atom
  • Bohr model-a model that proposes an atom is made up of a positive core(nucleus) and electrons circle it in fixed orbits
  • Bright-line spectra-
  • Cathode rays-the "rays" emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in a partially evacuated tube; a stream of electrons
  • Chalcogens- elements in group 6a of the periodic table
  • Chemical properties-the ability of a substance to change to a different substance.
  • Diameter
  • Discrete energy levels-energy levels that an electron will “jump” between as it becomes more or less “excited”, emitting a photon of light
  • Electromagnetic radiation-radiant energy that exhibits wave-like behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum.
  • Electromagnetic waves-a disturbance repeated over a certain wavelength
  • Electronegativity-the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
  • Electrons-negative componets of an atom that circle the nucleus in orbitals
  • Element
  • Emission
  • Energy-the capacity to do work or to cause the flow of heat.
  • Energy levels-certain orbitals where an electron may be found depeneding on its current energy state.
  • Family-elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table. Elements in a family share similar properties
  • Frequency-the number of waves(cycles)per second that pass a given point in space.
  • Halogens-Group 7 element.
  • Ionization energy-the quantity of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.
  • Ions-atoms that have become a charged entity by gaining or losing an
  • Isotopes-atoms of the same element(the same number of protons) that have different numbers of neutrons. They have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers.
  • Lanthanide-elements 57-71
  • Mass-the quantity of matter in an object.
  • Metals
  • Model-(theory) a set of assumptions put forth to explain the observed behavior of matter. The models of chemistry usually involve assumptions about the bahavior of individual atoms or molecules.
  • Molecules
  • N is the principal quantum number
  • Neutrons-a particle with no net charge that is located in the nulcues of an atom
  • Nonmetals-an element that does not exhibit metallic characteristics. Chemically, a typical nonmetal accepts electrons for a metal.
  • Nucleus-the positive core of an atom made up of protons and nuetrons
  • Orbital-a point in space around an atom where an electron may be found
  • Periodic Table-a table listing elements by atomic number
  • Periodicity-the varying of properties of elements
  • Photoelectric effect-when light is shone onto a metal the metal will emit electrons
  • Photons-basic units of electromagnetic radiation and light
  • Physical
  • Probabilistic nature
  • Protons-positive particles that make up the nucleus of an atom
  • Quantum
  • Quantum electron configuration
  • Quantum mechanical model-a model that shows the probable location of an electron
  • Quantum mechanics-the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to or below the atomic scale
  • Quantum theory-a theory of the interaction of matter and radiation
  • Radioactive-unstable nuclei in atoms
  • Radius (Radii)
  • Reactivity-the tendency to respond to certain stimuli
  • S p d and f subshells of quantum number
  • Semimetals(metalloids)-elements that share properties both with nonmetals and metals
  • Spectral lines-colored lines that appear when white light is shone through an element then through a prism.
  • Spectrum-range of values of a quantity or set of related quantities
  • Subshells
  • Transactinide-series of elements with an atomic number greater than 103
  • Transition metals-38 elements found in groups 3-12 on the periodic table
  • Transuranium-elements with an atomic number greater than 92. These elements can not be found in nature
  • Trillion
  • Valence electrons-electrons that have reached the outermost energy level(the valence shell)
  • Valence shell-the outermost energy level
  • Wave properties-a wave will follow a certain pattern “cresting” at certain intervals until hitting something that diffuses the wave
  • Wavelength-the distance between the tip of a wave and the tip of the following wave



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