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CH1 Framework

The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure.

1a. Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.

An atom consists of a nucleus made of protons and neutrons that is orbited by electrons. The number of protons, not electrons or neutrons, determines the unique properties of an element. This number of protons is called the atomic number. Elements are arranged on the periodic table in order of increasing atomic number. Historically, elements were ordered by atomic mass, but now scientists know that this order would lead to misplaced elements (e.g., tellurium and iodine) because differences in the number of neutrons for isotopes of the same element affect the atomic mass but do not change the identity of the element.

1b. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and halogens.

Most periodic tables have a heavy stepped line running from boron to astatine. Elements to the immediate right and left of this line, excluding the metal aluminum, are semimetals and have properties that are intermediate between metals and nonmetals. Elements further to the left are metals. Those further to the right are nonmetals. Halogens, which are a well-known family of nonmetals, are found in Group 17 (formerly referred to as Group VIIA). A group, also sometimes called a family, is found in a vertical column in the periodic table.

1c. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms.

A few other groups are given family names. These include the alkali metals (Group 1), such as sodium and potassium, which are soft and white and extremely reactive chemically. Alkaline earth metals (Group 2), such as magnesium and calcium, are found in the second column of the periodic table. The transition metals (Groups 3 through 12) are represented by some of the most common metals, such as iron, copper, gold, mercury, silver, and zinc. All these elements have electrons in their outer d orbitals.

Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond. The values of electronegativity calculated for various elements range from one or less for the alkali metals to three and one-half for oxygen to about four for fluorine. Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom. An element often has multiple ionization energies, which correspond to the energy needed to remove first, second, third, and so forth electrons from the atom. Generally in the periodic table, ionization energy and electronegativity increase from left to right because of increasing numbers of pro-tons and decrease from top to bottom owing to an increasing distance between electrons and the nucleus. Atomic and ionic sizes generally decrease from left to right and increase from top to bottom for the same reasons. Exceptions to these general trends in properties occur because of filled and half-filled subshells of electrons.

1d. Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding.

Only electrons in the outermost energy levels of the atom are available for bonding; this outermost bundle of energy levels is often referred to as the valence shell or valence shell of orbitals. All the elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outermost energy level. Therefore, alkali metals (Group 1) have one electron available for bonding, alkaline earth metals (Group 2) have two, and elements in Group 13 (once called Group III) have three. Unfilled energy levels are also available for bonding. For example, Group 16, the chalcogens, has room for two more electrons; and Group 17, the halogens, has room for one more electron to fill its outermost energy level.

To find the number of electrons available for bonding or the number of unfilled electron positions for a given element, students can examine the combining ratios of the elements compounds. For instance, one atom of an element from Group 2 will most often combine with two atoms of an element from Group 17 (e.g., MgCl2) because Group 2 elements have two electrons available for bonding, and Group 17 elements have only one electron position open in the outermost energy level. (Note that some periodic tables indicate an elements electron configuration or preferred oxidation states. This information is useful in determining how many electrons are involved in bonding.)

1e. Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.

The volume of the hydrogen nucleus is about one trillion times less than the volume of the hydrogen atom, yet the nucleus contains almost all the mass in the form of one proton. The diameter of an atom of any one of the elements is about 10,000 to 100,000 times greater than the diameter of the nucleus. The mass of the atom is densely packed in the nucleus.

The electrons occupy a large region of space centered around a tiny nucleus, and so it is this region that defines the volume of the atom. If the nucleus (proton) of a hydrogen atom were as large as the width of a human thumb, the electron would be on the average about one kilometer away in a great expanse of empty space. The electron is almost 2,000 times lighter than the proton; therefore, the large region of space occupied by the electron contains less than 0.1 percent of the mass of the atom.

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