Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerreto was born to Count Flippe Avogadro and Anna Maria Vercellone, in Turin on the 9th of August in 1776. CITATION REQUIRED Amedeo was born in to a very distinguished family of lawyers, following in his family's footsteps he became a lawyer as well. However he was very interested in natrual sciences and in 1800 he began private studies in physics and mathematics. In 1809 he began teaching in natural sciecne in liceo high school in Vericelli. CITATION REQUIRED
While his stay in Vercelli, Avogadro wrote what is now called Avogadro's law, which is the number of integral molecules in any gas is always the same for equal voiumes, or always proportional to the volumes,and the this number(Avogadro's number) is 6.023 x 1023. In 1811 Avogadro sent his hypothesis to a French scientist journal and it was published in the edition of July 14, 1811, under the title, "Essay on a manner of determining the relative masses of the Elementary molecules of bodies and the porportion by which they enter these combinations". This article contained one of two Avogadro's assumptions about molecules. The assumption in the essay was called "Avogadros Hypothesis" or even "Even Hypothesis". The second assumption that avogadro had stated was that gas molecules could divide in a chemical reaction. Avogadro used the "Even Hypothesis" to determine gas densities and assign molecular weights. His hypothesis states that the density of a gas at a given temperature and pressure depends only onthe weight of its molecules.
Avogadro decided that since the reported gas density og oxygen was 15 times more than hydrogen. molecular weight of oxygen was 15 times that of hydrogen;today modern measurements state oxygen to be 16 times more than hydrogen.Because of this he assigned oxygen a molecular weight of 15,relative to 1 for hydrogen. By this method, Avogadro was able to determine a molecular weight for any gas,given its density. However Avogadro's hypothesis was mostly discarded and neglected due to some theoritical problems such as Jöns Jakob Berzelius's "dualism which asserted that compounds are held together by the attraction of positive and negative electrical charges, making it inconceivable that a molecule composed of two electrically similar atoms—as in oxygen—could exist.Maybe the fact that Avogadro was not part of an active community of chemists: the Italy of his day was far from the centers of chemistry in France, Germany, England, and Sweden.Also he proposed his theory without any proof and experimentation, so basically it was an assumption, also he was not able to predict the volume ratios, only explain them.
Going Beyond Science
Amadeo played a political role as well. He was active in the revolutionary movements of 1821, against the King Sardinia. Due to his revolt against the king, Avogadro lost his teaching post in 1823.Some historians suggest that he sponsored some sardinian revolutionaries, but were stopped by the announcement of Charles Albert's constitution.
Honoring the man
In honor of Avogadro's contributions to molecular theory, the number of molecules in one mole was named Na or "Avogadro's number". Avogadro's number is 6.022x10.The number is used to compute the results of chemical reactions.Na allows chemist to determine the exact amount of substance produced in a given reaction.
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